Producing Targets for Conservation: Science and Politics at the Tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
Lisa M. Campbell
Noella J. Gray
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The use of targets as statements of shared aspiration has increased in global governance, 1 as support for regulatory approaches to environmental protection has declined in favor of liberal and neoliberal ones.2 In 2002, the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) committed to achieving “by 2010 a signifcant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level”3 through a series of targets further speciªed in 2004.4 By 2010, failure to reach the targets was well documented and synthesized in Global Biodiversity Outlook 3 (GBO3).5 It is amidst this backdrop that the CBD’s Tenth Conference of the Parties (COP10) convened to forge twenty new targets for 2020. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets (the 2020 Targets)6 were prominent in COP10 negotiations, and the focus of various side events and lobbying efforts by nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and civil society groups (Figure 1).