Boundary Objects and Global Consensus: Scalar Narratives of Marine Conservation in the Convention on Biological Diversity
Noella J. Gray
Rebecca L. Gruby
Lisa M. Campbell
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The global number of marine protected areas (MPAs) has increased dramatically in recent years, resulting in a ªvefold increase in area covered since 2003.1 Like terrestrial protected areas, MPAs are deªned by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as any “clearly deªned geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.”2 They range in size, purpose, resource use policies, and governance structures, for example, from large no-take areas identifed for their ecological value and administered by states, to small, multi-use areas protected by communities. “Marine protected area” is thus an umbrella term that refers to a variety of spatial approaches to marine conservation.