This thesis explores the structure, organization, and effectiveness of the Chinese rural healthcare system, the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS). My aim is to elucidate how this state-sponsored insurance system delivers healthcare to a vast and diverse population based on the sample of a single county, Mojiang County in Yunnan Province, and whether its many goals have been achieved since its founding in 2002. In four months of fieldwork, I interviewed doctors and patients in village clinics, town hospitals, and a county hospital, as well as an urban specialty hospital in Kunming. This study highlights the progress that has been made to date and the areas where improvement still needs to occur. My paper concludes with concrete suggestions for addressing some of the challenges that remain for the NRCMS in Mojiang County.