The Role of Guiding Principles in Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptualization and Utilization of Technology
Although research demonstrates the positive impact of technology integration on K-12 student learning, it also indicates a lack of effective teacher preparation in technology. This study examined the efforts of an undergraduate teacher education program to address this inconsistency and improve the technological preparation of its students through the introduction of five guiding principles: Appropriateness, Fluency, Ethics, Evaluation, and Application. A cohort of 13 undergraduate pre-service teachers completed two surveys, a weekly reflection journal, and a curricular unit while student teaching and engaging in ongoing professional development. The guiding principles were found to be a helpful framework within which the pre-service teachers could observe and undertake technology integration in the classroom.